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Pharmakologische Untersuchungen von Kamillen-Inhaltsstoffen I. Zur Pharmakologie des (-)-_-Bisabolol und Bisabololoxide (▄bersicht)

Journal/Book: Planta Medica. 1979; 35: 118-124.

Abstract: Up to 50 0/o of the essential oil of chamomile consists of (-)-alpha-bisabolol which is an unsaturated monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol. For the chamomile bisabolol the isopropylidene structure could be ascertained whereas the racemic compound obtained during bisabolol synthesis partly consists of the structure-isomeric isopropenyl form. Moreover, four bisabolol oxides could be isolated from chamomile. The content of the chamomile drug of (-)-alpha-bisabolol and (-)-alpha-bisabolol oxides can differ considerably according to origin and chemotype. Obviously, there is a genetically fixed relation between the content of bisabolol and the bisabolol oxides.Owing to the progress made during the last few years in the analysis of chamomile, the summarized data an the content of essential oil can be substituted for by indices an the pharmacologically relevant substances. Chamomile extracts should only be made from clearly defined chamomile types. Important for the selection of the right chamomile type is that therapeutically relevant substances are predominant. Regarding the constituents of the essential chamomile oil the antiphlogistic effect of (-)-alpha-bisabolol, chamazulene and - to a certain degree - en-indicyclo ether is substantiated. However, we have not enough knowledge of the effectivity of bisabolol oxides in order to postulate a standardization of these substances as well. In guinea pigs exposed to UV light, (-)-alpha-bisabolol leads to a decrease in skin temperature.In cutaneous burns of guinea pigs a significant shortening of the healing time could be achieved. With respect to a „bisabolol monoxide" not defined in detail and (+)-alpha-bisabolol the effect is much more marked. (-)-alphabisabolol promotes epithelization and granulation. In the carrageenin edema of the rat paw and in the cotton pellet granuloma of the rat a pronounced antiphlogistic effect could be proved. The effectiveness of (-)-alpha-bisabolol is significantly more marked than that of synthetic racemic bisabolol compound. A teratogenic effect was not found. Alpha-bisabolol -in vitro at the cornea of the calf - inhibits the integration of sulphate into the proteochondroitine and proteokeratane sulphates.According to the results obtained so far in pharmacological studies (-)-alpha-bisabolol - besides the chamazulene - is of considerable importance regarding the effectiveness of chamomile. However, to fix the weight of the individual substances of the essential chamomile oil for the standardization of chamomile extracts, further investigations, in particular an the effect of bisabolol oxides as compared to (-)-alpha-bisabolol, will be necessary.

Keyword(s): Matricaria chamomilla

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