Implicit and explicit learning of event sequences: evidence for distinct coding of perceptual and motor representations
Journal/Book: Acta Psychol. 2000; 104: PO Box 211, 1000 AE Amsterdam, Netherlands. Elsevier Science Bv. 45-67.
Abstract: Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) of 21 subjects were recorded in a choice reaction time task with a repeating eight-element long stimulus sequence. The regular event sequence was sometimes interrupted by 'perceptual' or by 'motor deviants' which both replaced an expected stimulus but either preserved or violated the sequence of motor responses. Response times confirmed that all subjects had acquired some knowledge of the sequential dependencies. By means of a post-experimental free recall and recognition test, subjects were classified as having either explicit or implicit knowledge of the event sequence. The ERPs showed different effects for different types of stimuli and the two groups. In the group of explicit learners, a larger N200 component was evoked by both types of deviants and a larger P300 by motor deviants only. In the group of implicit learners these 'perceptual components' remained unaffected. In contrast, in both groups of subjects the lateralized readiness potential (LRP) which accompanied motor deviants revealed a partial activation of the to be expected but incorrect response, i.e. Motor learning. These results suggest that explicit learners acquire knowledge about both, stimulus and response dependencies while implicit learners acquire knowledge about response dependencies only.
Note: Article Russeler J, Univ Magdeburg, Dept Psychol, Lennestr 6, D-39112 Magdeburg, GERMANY
Keyword(s): event-related potentials; N200; P300; LRP; sequence learning; BRAIN POTENTIALS; PROCEDURAL KNOWLEDGE; SERIAL PATTERNS; AGE-DIFFERENCES; INDIRECT TESTS; REACTION-TIMES; INFORMATION; ATTENTION; TASK; PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY