Wisdom as a classical source of human strength: Conceptualization and empirical inquiry
Journal/Book: J Soc Clin Psychol. 2000; 19: 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012, USA. Guilford Publications Inc. 83-101.
Abstract: Wisdom has been conceptualized as: (1) a rare, highly exercised and developed form of cognitive expertise about the domain of human affairs that al lows for multiple conduits or (2) a constellation of personal attributes reflecting a high degree of cognitive, affective, and behavioral maturity that allows for an unusual degree of sensitivity, broad-mindedness, and concern for humanity. Using either conceptualization, wisdom research shows that it is a rare achievement, most often evolving from unusual life experiences that foster introspection, reflection on the human condition, and counseling others. Openness to experience is the most frequent predictor of wisdom, Wise people are also found to think more dialectically, exhibit generativity and compassionate concern for others, and accept life's limitations. Wise people show less despair and less dissatisfaction by grappling with existential issues and finding purpose and meaning in adverse experiences.
Note: Article Kramer DA, Rutgers State Univ, Dept Psychol, 53 Ave E, Piscataway,NJ 08854 USA
Keyword(s): INTELLIGENCE; KNOWLEDGE; AGE