Dynamics of 1 : 2 coordination: Generalizing relative phase to n : m rhythms
Journal/Book: J Motor Behav. 1999; 31: 1319 Eighteenth St NW, Washington, DC 20036-1802, USA. Heldref Publications. 207-223.
Abstract: Interlimb rhythmic movements can be modeled as coupled oscillators, with stable performance characterized by the relative phase between the limbs. In the present study, that modeling strategy, verified previously for 1:1 coordination, was generalized to 1:2 coordination with a view to n:m coordination. The generalized model predicted interactions between coordination (specifically, 1:1 vs. 1:2) and the frequency asymmetry between the limbs determining mean relative phase and its variability. The predicted interactions were evaluated with bimanual 1:2 and 1:1 rhythmic tasks in which participants (N = 8) oscillated hand-held pendulums whose uncoupled frequencies could be adjusted so that different interlimb asymmetries were produced. The authors needed new analytic procedures to verify stable 1:2 coordination and to resolve stochastic and deterministic sources of variability in the component oscillations. The major expectations from the generalized model were confirmed, and the implications of additional but unpredicted findings for the modeling of multifrequency behavior are discussed.
Note: Article Sternad D, Penn State Univ, Dept Kinesiol, 266 Recreat Bldg, University Pk,PA 16802 USA
Keyword(s): bimanual coordination; multifrequency task; nonlinear dynamics; HUMAN HAND MOVEMENTS; INTERLIMB COORDINATION; BIMANUAL COORDINATION; MODEL; PERFORMANCE; ASYMMETRIES; TRANSITIONS; ENTRAINMENT; OSCILLATORS; CONSTRAINTS