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November 2021

Verbal reinforcement and self-monitoring inclinations

Author(s): self-monitoring

Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1986; Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. National Association for Music Therapy 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 930 20910 Silver Spring, Maryland USA. journal article.

Abstract: This article discusses how music therapists can structure verbal reinforcement based on an evaluation of each client's self-monitoring inclinations. The Self-Monitoring Scale (SMS) is an assessment instrument that determines whether individuals are intrinsically or extrinsically motivated. Clients with low scores on this scale seek reinforcement that focuses on their internal attitudes and values. Clients who score high on the scale seek reinforcement directed at their involvement in the external social situation. Initial normative data were gathered for adult clients (N=95) undergoing treatment for chemical dependency in a residential treatment center. Reliability estimates ranged from .87 for Cronbach's coefficient alpha and .86 for test-retest. Significant differences were found between this sample's mean score and those reported for college students. Gender and age did not influence scores on the SMS. Use of this instrument in music therapy services for clients with chemical dependency should achieve consistent results, enabling clinicians to document a rationale for differential verbal reinforcement.

Keyword(s): reinforcement, reinforcer, verbal, intrinsic, motivation, chemical-dependence, addiction.


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