Acoustical analysis of the underlying voice differences between two groups of professional singers: opera and country and western
Journal/Book: Laryngoscope. 1986; 96: 549-54.
Abstract: An acoustical analysis of the speaking and singing voices of two types of professional singers was conducted. The vowels /i/, /a/, and /o/ were spoken and sung ten times each by seven opera and seven country and western singers. Vowel spectra were derived by computer software techniques allowing quantitative assessment of formant structure ( F1-F4), relative amplitude of resonance peaks (F1-F4), fundamental frequency, and harmonic high frequency energy. Formant analysis was the most effective parameter differentiating the two groups. Only opera singers lowered their fourth formant creating a wide-band resonance area (approximately 2,800 Hz) corresponding to the well-known "singing formant. " Country and western singers revealed similar resonatory voice characteristics for both spoken and sung output. These results implicate faulty vocal technique in country and western singers as a contributory reason for vocal abuse/fatigue.
Keyword(s): Music|. Phonetics|. Voice|. Voice Quality|