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September 2021

Protective correlates of stages in adolescent substance use: A Swiss national study

Author(s): Ireland, M., Michaud, P. A., Narring, F., Resnick, M. D.

Journal/Book: J Adolescent Health. 2000; 26: 655 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10010, USA. Elsevier Science Inc. 420-427.

Abstract: Objective: To identify factors potentially protective against involvement with additional illicit drugs among adolescent users of marijuana. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional, secondary analysis of a national data set of Swiss adolescents was performed. The original survey was conducted in 1992-1993 (N = 9268). Stages of substance use were conceptualized as lifetime use of marijuana of three or more times and as use of marijuana and other illicit drugs (opiates, inhalants, cocaine, hallucinogens, or stimulants) more than twice in the past month. Behavioral characteristics associated with level of drug use were examined. Based on the resilience literature, factors potentially protective against progression of drug use were examined in their bivariate relationships and analyzed in a multiple regression model. Results: Almost one quarter of the surveyed adolescents were classified as past or current marijuana users. One in 20 of these adolescents also used other illicit drugs. Prevalence of risk-related behaviors (e.g., antisocial behavior, accidents, suicide attempts) was elevated for marijuana users compared to nonusers and even more elevated for users of marijuana with other illicit drugs. In a multivariate logistic regression model, communicating well with a parent was significantly associated with not having progressed to use of illicit drugs other than marijuana [for males, odds ratio (OR) = 0.72, confidence interval (CI) = 0.55, 0.92; for females, OR = 0.60, CI = 0.39, 0.93]. Other significant protective correlates for boys were academic achievement (OR = 0.66, CI = 0.47, 0.92), type of education: school versus apprenticeship (OR = 0.42, CI = 0.21, 0.87), confiding in a family member (OR = 0.49, CI = 0.28, 0.85), and regular participation in a sports club (OR = 0.39, CT = 0.22, 0.77). Conclusion: Within this national sample of Swiss adolescents, a cross-sectional analysis identified the quality of relationships within the family and factors related to school associated with lack of progression of illicit substance use. However, longitudinal studies will be necessary to confirm these associations and to allow for designing interventions targeting the enhancement of protective factors among young people already at risk for serious substance use.

Note: Article Stronski SM, Lerchenweg 31, CH-3012 Bern, SWITZERLAND

Keyword(s): adolescents; cross-sectional studies; gender differences; illicit drugs; marijuana use; protective factors; survey; Switzerland; HIGH-SCHOOL-STUDENTS; FUTURE TIME PERSPECTIVE; DRUG-USE; COLLEGE-STUDENTS; YOUNG ADULTHOOD; LIFE EVENTS; HEALTH; RISK; INVOLVEMENT; PATTERNS

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