Additional validity of the Basic Language Morningness (BALM) Scale
Journal/Book: Pers Indiv Differ. 2000; 28: the Boulevard Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford Ox5 1GB, England. Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd. 59-72.
Abstract: This study examines the psychometric properties of the Basic Language Morningness (BALM) Scale on 100 Singaporean students. The alpha of 0.79 is comparable to that reported in Brown's study. The predictive validity of the scale is established on study schedules but not class schedules. The percentage of study time in the morning of morning type persons is higher than that of evening types whereas the percentage of study time at night of evening type persons is higher than that of morning types. Morning type individuals spend more time studying in the morning than they do at night whereas evening type individuals spend more time studying at night than they do in the morning. The shortened 7-item scale improves the full scale by deleting items that are redundant or have poor statistical properties. It retains the reliability (alpha = 0.70) and validity. Items 9, 11, 10, 6, and 8 load on the factor ''Self-Reported Morningness-Eveningness/voluntary Schedules''. Items 12 and 5 load on the factor ''Alertness After Waking up''. Morningness scores do not differ by gender.
Note: Article Pornpitakpan C, 194-2 Nonsee Rd, Bangkok 10120, THAILAND
Keyword(s): chronobiology; circadian rhythms; human biological rhythms; test reliability; test validity; Singapore; CIRCADIAN-RHYTHM QUESTIONNAIRES; DIURNAL TYPE SCALE; INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES; PSYCHOMETRIC PROPERTIES; INTERINDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES; EVENINGNESS QUESTIONNAIRE; COMPOSITE SCALE; SHIFT WORK; PERSONALITY; EQUIVALENCE