Dysphoria and aloneness in borderline personality disorder
Journal/Book: Psychopathology. 2000; 33: Allschwilerstrasse 10, CH-4009 Basel, Switzerland. Karger. 220-226.
Abstract: A close examination of dysphoria, anger and aloneness (three main characteristics of the borderline syndrome) provides a theoretical model of reference for the therapist. Dysphoria results from the cyclical emotional oscillation between hope for stability and disappointment in its inattainability; a dependent-anaclitic depression arises from the mixture of anger, aloneness and inner emptiness which is so characteristic of the borderline syndrome. The tendency to be immersed in the here-and-now, an intra-festum mentality, exacerbates the sense of isolation, causing more irritation, mute frustration and, consequently, anger. The effects and ramifications of anger, and the resultant precarious cohesion of the self, are explored in the borderline syndrome; they are especially illuminated by the application of Kernberg's pain-anger-hate-vengefulness cycle concept, Meanings of solitude, in its forms of aloneness and loneliness, are explored in their pertinence. Aloneness - the constant needy search for, but condemnation to never finding, objects to fill an inner sense of emptiness - is especially germane. Suggestions for assisting subjects with borderline personality disorder to overcome aloneness and the lack of historical progression are made,
Note: Article Monti MR, Univ Urbino, Inst Psychol, Via Zeppi, I-61029 Urbino, ITALY
Keyword(s): borderline; dysphoria; hate; aloneness; vengefulness; DEPRESSION; AGGRESSION