Sex differences in schizophrenia, a review of the literature
Journal/Book: Acta Psychiat Scand. 2000; 101: 35 Norre Sogade, PO Box 2148, Dk-1016 Copenhagen, Denmark. Munksgaard Int Publ Ltd. 3-38.
Abstract: Objective: To comprehensively and critically review the literature on gender differences in schizophrenia. Method: An initial search of MEDLINE abstracts (1966-1999) was conducted using the terms sex or gender and schizophrenia, followed by systematic search of all relevant articles. Results: Males have consistently an earlier onset, poorer premorbid functioning and different premorbid behavioral predictors. Males show more negative symptoms and cognitive deficits, with greater structural brain and neurophysiological abnormalities. Females display more affective symptoms, auditory hallucinations and persecutory delusions with more rapid and greater responsivity to antipsychotics in the premenopausal period but increased side effects. Course of illness is more favorable in females in the short- and middle-term, with less smoking and substance abuse. Families of males are more critical, and expressed emotion has a greater negative impact on males. There are no clear sex differences in family history, obstetric complications, minor physical anomalies and neurological soft signs. Conclusion: This review supports the presence of significant differences between schizophrenic males and females arising from the interplay of sex hormones, neurodevelopmental and psychosocial sex differences.
Note: Review Chue P, Psychopharmacol Res Unit, 10-126 CSB, 8440-112 St, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, CANADA
Keyword(s): schizophrenia; sex; gender; review; MINOR PHYSICAL ANOMALIES; PLASMA HOMOVANILLIC-ACID; AGE-OF-ONSET; NEUROLOGICAL SOFT SIGNS; FIRST-EPISODE SCHIZOPHRENIA; DRUG-INDUCED AKATHISIA; CEREBRAL BLOOD-FLOW; 5-YEAR FOLLOW-UP; INPATIENT FAMILY INTERVENTION; PLANUM TEMPORALE ASYMMETRY