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December 2021

Social, dimensional, and temporal comparisons: ''Paradox'' effects of praise and blame

Journal/Book: Z Entwicklungspsychol Padago. 1999; 31: Rohnsweg 25, D-37085 Gottingen, Germany. Hogrefe & Huber Publishers. 11-17.

Abstract: After exam results are announced, students are not restricted to social comparisons. They can also use internal frames of reference. These may lead to temporal comparisons or to comparisons between their achievements in different subjects. Whereas the latter are not covered by the theory of social comparisons (Festinger, 1954), they rue crf some importance within educational research on self-concepts (Marsh, 1990). In a scenaric study (N = 120) the three kinds of comparisons were experimentally stimulated to investigate the paradoxical effects of praise and blame (Meyer, 1984). It is shown that social as well as dimensional comparisons trigger paradoxical ability inferences, based on corresponding estimations of effort and expectancies following praise and blame. There were no paradoxical effects following temporal comparisons.

Note: Article Moller J, Univ Kiel, Inst Psychol, Olshausenstr 40, D-24098 Kiel, GERMANY

Keyword(s): social comparison; temporal comparison; paradox effects of praise and blame; ABILITY; ACHIEVEMENT

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