Automaticity in clinical psychology
Journal/Book: Amer Psychol. 1999; 54: 750 First St NE, Washington, DC 20002-4242, USA. Amer Psychological Assoc. 504-515.
Abstract: The authors provide an overview of the literature on the ability of response expectancies to elicit automatic responses in the form of self-fulfilling prophecies and link it to the broader psychological investigation of automatic processes. The authors review 3 areas of research in which response expectancies have been shown to affect experience, behavior, and physiology: placebo effects, the effects of false biofeedback on sexual arousal, and the alteration of perceptual and cognitive functions by hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestion. Also reviewed are data suggesting that all behavior including novel and intentional behavior is initiated automatically. Following this review, the authors summarize some of the ways in which knowledge of response expectancy effects and other automatic processes that influence experience and behavior can enhance clinical practice.
Note: Article Kirsch I, Univ Connecticut, Dept Psychol, U-20, 406 Babbidge Rd, Storrs,CT 06269 USA
Keyword(s): FACILITATED COMMUNICATION; HYPNOTIC INVOLUNTARINESS; MENTAL CONTROL; HYPNOSIS; METAANALYSIS; EXPECTANCY; DEPRESSION; THERAPY; HYPNOTIZABILITY; SUSCEPTIBILITY