Cognitive approaches to the development of short-term memory
Journal/Book: Trends Cogn Sci. 1999; 3: the Boulevard Langford Lane, Kidlington, Oxford Ox5 1GB, Oxon, England. Elsevier Sci Ltd. 410-419.
Abstract: The capacity to retain information for brief periods of time increases dramatically during;the childhood years. The increases in temporary storage of speech-based material that take place in the period spanning the pre-school years and adolescence reflect complex changes in many of the different component processes, including perceptual analysis, construction and maintenance of a memory trace, retention of order information, rehearsal, retrieval and redintegration, Another crucial capacity that undergoes a similar striking development is complex working memory, the ability to manipulate and store material simultaneously. Possible sources of age-related changes in working memory include increases in processing efficiency and attentional capacity, and task-switching. These two short-term memory systems might play significant but distinct roles in supporting the acquisition of knowledge and skills during childhood. Whereas phonological short-term memory is linked specifically with the learning of the phonological structures of new words, complex working memory appears to support processing and learning in a wide range of contexts, in both childhood and adulthood.
Note: Review Gathercole SE, Univ Bristol, Dept Expt Psychol, 8 Woodland Rd, Bristol BS8 1TN, Avon, ENGLAND
Keyword(s): INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES APPROACH; IMMEDIATE SERIAL-RECALL; WORKING-MEMORY; PHONOLOGICAL MEMORY; VOCABULARY ACQUISITION; PROCESSING SPEED; SPAN; CHILDREN; CAPACITY; WORDS