Meta-analysis of cue-reactivity in addiction research
Journal/Book: Addiction. 1999; 94: PO Box 25, Abingdon, Oxfordshire, England Ox14 3Ue. Carfax Publ Co. 327-340.
Abstract: Aims. The cue-reactivity procedure exposes addicts to a variety of drug-related stimuli while self-report of craving and physiological responses are monitored. The present review sought to determine the magnitude and overall pattern of responses typically found in cue-reactivity research and which, if any, learning-based model of cue reactivity is best supported by the findings. Design. Meta-analytical techniques were used to select and evaluate results from 41 cue-reactivity studies that compared responses of alcoholics, cigarette smokers, cocaine addicts or heroin addicts to drug-related versus neutral stimuli. Effect sizes were calculated, separately by addict type, for self-report of craving and physiological responses (heart rate, sweat gland activity and skin temperature). Findings. Across all addict groups, the effect size for craving was + 0.92. Alcoholics had a significantly smaller craving effect size (+ 0.53) compared to other addict groups (+1.18 to + 1.29). Relatively smaller effect sizes were found for physiological responses. The general profile of effect sizes across all addict groups was increased heart rate (+ 0.26) and sweat gland activity (+ 0.40) and decreased skin temperature (- 0.24) when addicts were presented with drug-related stimuli. Conclusions. The cue-reactivity paradigm can produce a stable profile of significant effects and, therefore, has a number of potential applications for investigating addictive phenomena. The implications of these findings for conditioning-based models; of cue-reactivity phenomena are discussed.
Note: Article Tiffany ST, Purdue Univ, Dept Psychol Sci, W Lafayette,IN 47907 USA
Keyword(s): DETOXIFIED OPIATE ADDICTS; ALCOHOL-RELATED STIMULI; SMOKING URGES; CONDITIONED-RESPONSES; DEPENDENT DRINKERS; MOOD INDUCTION; COCAINE ABUSE; EXPOSURE; IMAGERY; MANIPULATION