Z Kardiol. 1998 Nov; 87(11): 881-90.
[Importance of increased physical activity in ambulatory cardiovascular prevention]
Med. Univ.-Klinik Freiburg Abt. Rehabilitative und Präventive Sportmedizin. [email protected]
Current trends in public health provided potential arguments to, first, intensify the recommendations of a physically active lifestyle in the primary prevention of atherosclerosis and, second, to prescribe a supervised outpatient exercise training program for secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical exercise may positively influence cardiovascular risk factors (overweight, hypertension, hyperlipoproteinaemia, insulin resistance, hemostatic markers). Physical conditioning modifies the body composition in favor of an increased skeletal muscle mass, changes the eating habits, and other life style characteristics. The dietary modifications characterized by a low-fat, more vegetarian food supports the weight control and the adjustment of the other metabolic risk factors. All these changes are suitable to reduce the manifestation of atherosclerosis and to minimize the risk of an acute thromboembolic arterial occlusion. Physical conditioning on one's own initiative in primary prevention or an exercise training program supervised by health professionals in secondary prevention of atherosclerosis should predominantly include a low intensive aerobic endurance exercise training. Lactate concentration in capillary blood can be measured to objectify and regulate exercise intensity. The additional energy turnover should amount to a minimum of 1,000 kcal and a maximum of 3,500 kcal weekly. This energy expenditure could be realized either with an increased physical activity level in daily routine (e.g., stair climbing, go for a walk, gardening) or by a regular leisure-time physical exercise. A turnover of 300 kcal per session should be prescribed. In long-term clinical trials investigating the benefit of primary and secondary cardiovascular prevention a reduction of the cardiovascular mortality of about 20-30% has been demonstrated.