J Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jul; 61(3): 215-28.
Oral anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic activities of a hydroalcoholic extract and partitioned fractions of Turnera ulmifolia (Turneraceae).
Department of Pharmacology, FCM/UNICAMP, Campinas, SÃ£o Paulo, Brazil.
Anti-inflammatory studies were conducted on rats or mice using a crude hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Turnera ulmifolia and it's partitioned fractions, i.e. the aqueous, ethyl acetate and ethanolic fractions. The hydroalcoholic extract and it's fractions (aqueous and ethanolic) inhibited carrageenan-induced edema. However, only the ethanolic fraction was used in the other experiments due to it's yield. The extract also inhibited the cotton pellet granuloma and the increase of vascular permeability induced by histamine, 5-hydroxytryptamine and prostaglandin E2, but not that produced by bradykinin. The extract or the fraction did not present analgesic activity in the writhing test using acetic acid and did not reduce croton oil-induced ear edema in mice. When the ethanolic fraction and LPS were administered i.p. to Balb/C mice 72 h before blood or peritoneal fluid collection, no changes were observed in the white or total blood cell counts in the peripheral blood. On the other hand, changes were observed in both total and differential cell counts in the peritoneal exudate since all doses of the fraction reduced the number of total leukocytes (mainly lymphocytes) obtained from the peritoneal exudate. In contrast to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the administration of the hydroalcoholic extract or the ethanolic fraction alone did not potentiate gastric mucosal lesions induced by aspirin. The extract and the fraction inhibited the appearance of gastric lesions induced by indomethacin, ethanol and pylorus ligature, but not those induced by stress. As also observed with carbenoxolone, the ethanolic fraction increased the wall mucus in hypothermical-restraint stress-induced gastric lesions. The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the extract and of the ethanolic fraction may be related to an increase of mucosal defensive factors, such as prostaglandin and mucus. The anti-inflammatory actions of the extract and the fraction may be due to an inhibitory effect on histamine and cyclooxygenase II, but not on cyclooxygenase I, because the extract and it's fraction present both anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic effects. The major substances present in the ethanolic fraction are flavonoids which will be isolated and identified.