Yakugaku Zasshi. 1997 Jul; 117(7): 379-93.
[Structure-function study on gastric proton pump]
Molecular Genetics Research Center, Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.
H+, K(+)-ATPase is a proton pump responsible for gastric acid secretion. It actively transport proton and K+ coupled with the hydrolysis of ATP, resulting in the formulation of a 10(6) fold proton gradient across the plasma membrane of parietal cells. The pump belongs to a family of P-type ATPases which include the Na+ pump (Na+, K(+)-ATPase) and the Ca2+ pump (Ca(2+)-ATPase). This review focuses on the structure-function relationship of this proton pump by using functional antibodies, specific inhibitor(s), a fluorescent reagent and site-directed mutants. First we prepared monoclonal antibodies which modified the functions of the H+, K(+)-ATPase . One of the antibodies, HK2032 inhibited the H+, K(+)-ATPase activity and the chloride conductance in gastric vesicles opened by S-S cross-linking, suggesting that the chloride pathway is in the H+, K(+)-ATPase molecule, and that the H+, K(+)-ATPase is a multi-functional molecule. Other antibody, HK4001 inhibited the H+, K(+)-ATPase activity by inhibiting its phosphorylation step. By using this antibody we found an H+, K(+)-ATPase isoform in the rabbit distal colon. Second we found that scopadulcic acid B, a main ingredient of Paraguayan traditional herb, is an inhibitor specific for the H+, K(+)-ATPase. This compound inhibited the H+, K(+)-ATPase activity by stabilizing the K(+)-form of the enzyme. Third we studied the conformational changes of the H+, K(+)-ATPase by observing the fluorescence of FITC-labeled enzyme. H+, K(+)-ATPase did not utilize acetylphosphate instead the ATP as an energy source of active transport, suggesting that the energy transduction system is not common among P-type ATPases. Finally we constructed a functional expression system of the H+, K(+)-ATPase in human kidney cells. By using this functional expression system in combination with site-directed mutagenesis, we studied the significance of amino acid residues in the catalytic centers (a phosphorylation site and an ATP binding site) and the putative cation binding sites. We newly found the sites determining the affinity for cations.