Chiropr Hist. 1997 ; 17(2): 57-68.
Early Canadian chiropractic colleges.
Chiropractic education arrived in Canada, principally in Ontario, in 1909 with Robbins Chiropractic Institute, (RIC) in Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario. After the RIC's closure in 1913, the Canadian Chiropractic College (CCC) Hamilton, Ontario, held its first classes in 1914 under Dr. Ernest Du Val, 1911 Palmer School of Chiropractic graduate. It was during this period that the Hodgins Commission on Ontario Medical Education held public sessions with presentations from all health professions including chiropractic. It was the outcome of this Commissions Report that dealt a devastating blow to chiropractic. The CCC, which moved to Toronto in 1919, remained the only chiropractic college in Canada until 1920 with the opening of the Toronto Chiropractic College (TCC). The CCC closed in 1923; and the TCC, in 1926. Although all three colleges taught a "straight" program, the "mixers," largely from American schools, became the dominant political force in the province, particularly on the Board of Regents for the enforcement of the 1925 Drugless Practitioners Act, a mixed Board of chiropractors, osteopaths and drugless therapists.