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January 2022

Neurochemical mechanisms in brain injury and treatment: A review

Author(s): Dillon, M. C., Jackson, W. T.

Journal/Book: J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1996; 18: P O Box 825, 2160 Sz Lisse, Netherlands. Swets Zeitlinger Publishers. 685-706.

Abstract: This article reviews cellular energy transformation processes and neurochemical events that take place at the time of brain injury and shortly thereafter, emphasizing hypoxia-ischemia, cerebrovascular accident, and traumatic brain injury. New interpretations of established concepts, such as diffuse axonal injury, are discussed; specific events, such as free radical production, excess production of excitatory amino acids, and disruption of calcium homeostasis, are reviewed. Neurochemically-based interventions are also presented: calcium channel blockers, excitatory amino acid antagonists, free radical scavengers, and hypothermia treatment. Concluding remarks focus on the role of clinical neuropsychologists in validation of treatment interventions.

Note: Review TA Novack, Univ Alabama, Spain Rehabil Ctr, Dept Rehabil Med, 1717 6TH Ave S, Birmingham, AL 35233 USA

Keyword(s): CEREBRAL-ARTERY OCCLUSION; SEVERE HEAD-INJURY; EXCITATORY AMINO-ACIDS; CONJUGATED SUPEROXIDE-DISMUTASE; TRANSIENT FOCAL ISCHEMIA; PROTEIN-KINASE-C; MILD HYPOTHERMIA; BLOOD-FLOW; FOREBRAIN ISCHEMIA; LIPID-PEROXIDATION


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