Protective effects of garlic and related organosulfur compounds on acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity in mice
Author(s):, , , , ,
Abstract: In previous studies, we have demonstrated that diallyl sulfide, a flavor component of garlic, protects against chemically induced hepatotoxicity. The present study examined the activities of fresh garlic homogenates (FGH) and related organosulfur compounds in the protection against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity and the possible mechanisms involved in this protection. When FGH (5 g/kg) was administered to Swiss-Webster mice 2 hr prior to, or immediately after, an APAP treatment (0.2 g/kg), APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was essentially prevented as indicated by serum levels of alanine aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase and by liver histopathology. Partial protection was observed with a lower dose of FGH (0.5 g/kg). FGH also prevented APAP-induced hepatic glutathione depletion in a dose-dependent manner. FGH significantly inhibited the formation of APAP-oxidized metabolites, as indicated by decreased plasma levels of oxidized APAP metabolites. The amount of APAP excreted as oxidized metabolites in the 24 hr urine samples was also significantly lower in the mice pretreated with FGH. FGH supernatant inhibited cytochrome P450-dependent APAP oxidation in microsomal incubations. The results suggest that the protection against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity by FGH is mainly due to its inhibition of P450-mediated APAP bioactivation. Several garlic-derived organosulfur compounds and structurally related compounds were examined for their abilities to protect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. An S-allyl structure appears to be a common feature for most sulfides to inhibit P450 2E1-dependent activity and to display good protective activities.
Keyword(s): Acetaminophen [administration & dosage] [urine]