J Subst Abuse Treat. 1995 Nov-Dec; 12(6): 401-13.
Effectiveness of adjunct therapies in crack cocaine treatment.
Affiliated Systems Corporation, Houston, TX, USA.
Although intensive outpatient therapy is recommended for treatment of cocaine, psychosocial characteristics associated with crack cocaine abuse are also implicated in attrition from outpatient programs. Acupuncture, medications, and brainwave therapy (biofeedback), have all been used to encourage treatment retention and drug use outcomes. The effectiveness of three adjunct therapies in improving retention and drug use outcomes in intensive outpatient cocaine treatment was tested in a primarily young, indigent African-American sample of crack cocaine users at a community hospital in a low-income, high drug use neighborhood in Houston. Subjects were assigned to receive either neurobehavioral treatment alone or neurobehavioral with one of three adjunct therapies. These included acupuncture, anticraving medication, or brainwave therapy. Comparative results indicated that dosage of any adjunct therapy was associated with days in treatment and standard treatment sessions attended, and that standard treatment sessions attended was associated with negative urinalysis results at follow-up. None of the adjunct therapies were directly associated with drug use outcomes.