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Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1995 Apr; 43(4): 641-8.

Inhibitory effects of Egyptian folk medicines on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) reverse transcriptase.

el-Mekkawy S, Meselhy MR, Kusumoto IT, Kadota S, Hattori M, Namba T.

Research Institute for Wakan-Yaku (Traditional Sino-Japanese Medicines), Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

Extracts of 41 medicinal plants used in Egyptian folk medicine were screened for their inhibitory effects on human immunodeficiency virus-1 reverse transcriptase. The extracts of fruits of Phyllanthus emblica, Quercus pedunculata, Rumex cyprius, Terminalia bellerica, Terminalia chebula and Terminalia horrida showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 < or = 50 micrograms/ml. Through a bioassay guided-fractionation of the methanol extract of the fruit of P. emblica, putranjivain A (1) was isolated as a potent inhibitory substance with IC50 = 3.9 microM, together with 1,6-di-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (2), 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose (3), kaempferol-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (4), quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (5) and digallic acid (6). The inhibitory mode of action by 1, 2 and 6 was non-competitive with respect to the substrate but competitive with respect to a template-primer. Furthermore, the stereochemistry of 1 was established in this paper by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

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