Fortschr Med. 1993 Sep; 111(27): 420-2.
[Conservative therapy of backache. Part 5: TENS, acupuncture, biofeedback, traction, cryotherapy, massage and ultrasound]
Klinik für Physikalische Medizin und Rehabilitation, Universität Wien.
In addition to the major therapeutic modalities for use in back pain already discussed, a number of other forms of treatment are also available and in common use some of which at least have a solid scientific basis. Recent data suggest that subthreshold TENS is no effective treatment for low back pain. Whether this is also true of higher-dose TENS is not yet clear. Electro-acupuncture, in contrast, does appear to be effective, but not biofeedback or traction. Other commonly employed treatment modalities, such as cryotherapy, heat, massage or ultrasound cannot definitively be assessed at present, since controlled trials have not been carried out.