J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 1992 Jan; 15(1): 57-61.
The reflex effects of spinal somatic nerve stimulation on visceral function.
Department of Autonomic Nervous System, Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology, Japan.
This paper studies somatovisceral reflex responses in the cardiovascular organ, gastrointestinal tract, urinary bladder and adrenal medulla in anesthetized animals after eliminating emotional factors following somatic sensory stimulations. Various somatic sensory stimulations, including cutaneous, muscle and articular sensory stimulations, can produce differing autonomic reflex responses, depending on which visceral organs and somatic afferents are stimulated. Some responses have dominant sympathetic efferent involvement, whereas others have dominant parasympathetic efferent involvement. Some responses have propriospinal and segmental characteristics, while others have supraspinal and generalized characteristics in their reflex nature. These somatovisceral reflex responses may be functioning during spinal manipulative therapy in conscious humans.