Probl Vet Med. 1992 Mar; 4(1): 66-87.
Techniques and instrumentation.
There are many methods used to stimulate acupuncture points to achieve therapeutic objectives. Among the most frequently employed are physical pressure or vacuum (acupressure and cupping), temperature variation (cauterization, moxibustion, electronic heat devices, infrared lamps, ultraviolet lights, ice, dry ice, and surface coolants such as ethyl chloride), ultrasound (sonapuncture), injection therapy (aquapuncture), implantation of various materials into points, laser stimulation (laserpuncture), and electrostimulation of the acupuncture points, with or without needles (electroacupuncture). This chapter describes these techniques, their uses, and place in acupuncture therapy.