Comparing headphone and speaker effects on simulated driving
Journal/Book: Accid Anal Prev. 1990; 22: 523-9.
Abstract: Twelve persons drove for three hours in an automobile simulator while listening to music at sound level 63dB over stereo headphones during one session and from a dashboard speaker during another session. They were required to steer a mountain highway, maintain a certain indicated speed, shift gears, and respond to occasional hazards. Steering and speed control were dependent on visual cues. The need to shift and the hazards were indicated by sound and vibration effects. With the headphones, the driver's average reaction time for the most complex task presented--shifting gears--was about one-third second longer than with the speaker. The use of headphones did not delay the development of subjective fatigue.
Keyword(s): Adult ; Automobile Driving psychology; Music psychology; Reaction Time physiology; Task Performance and Analysis Automobile Driving; Models, Theoretical; Music Comparative Study; Human; Male; Support, Non U.S. Gov't