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May 2022

The role of knowledge-based expectations in music perception: evidence from musical restoration

Author(s): Samuel, A. G.

Journal/Book: J Exp Psychol Gen. 1990; 119: 123-44.

Abstract: The perceptual restoration of musical sounds was investigated in 5 experiments with Samuel's (1981a) discrimination methodology. Restoration in familiar melodies was compared to phonemic restoration in Experiment 1. In the remaining experiments, we examined the effect of expectations (generated by familiarity, predictability, and musical schemata) on musical restoration. We investigated restoration in melodies by comparing familiar and unfamiliar melodies (Experiment 2), as well as unfamiliar melodies varying in tonal and rhythmic predictability (Experiment 3). Expectations based on both familiarity and predictability were found to reduce restoration at the melodic level. Restoration at the submelodic level was investigated with scales and chords in Experiments 4 and 5. At this level, key-based expectations were found to increase restoration. Implications for music perception, as well as similarities between restoration in music and speech, are discussed.

Keyword(s): Adult ; Attention ; Concept Formation; Phonetics ; Speech Perception Music ; Pitch Discrimination; Set Psychology Female; Human; Male; Support, U.S. Gov't, Non P.H.S.


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