Am J Public Health. 1988 Aug; 78(8): 958-60.
History of blood transfusion, tattooing, acupuncture and risk of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia among Chinese men in Singapore.
Department of Community, Occupational, and Family Medicine, National University of Singapore.
To determine whether a history of blood transfusion, tattooing, and acupuncture is associated with an increased risk of hepatitis B surface antigenaemia, a study of 6,328 Chinese men between 35 and 65 years of age was undertaken in Singapore. The age-adjusted odds ratios were 1.44 (95% CI: 1.14, 1.83) for blood transfusion, 1.14 (95% CI: 0.80, 1.63) for tattooing, and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.71, 1.11) for acupuncture. Using no history of any of the three percutaneous procedures as reference, the age-adjusted odds ratio for blood transfusion only was 1.40, 95% CI: 1.07, 1.84, and for blood transfusion plus tattooing was 2.59, 95% CI: 1.18, 5.70. The proportion of HBsAg positive cases attributable to blood transfusion and tattooing, as measured by the population attributable risk, are 4.1 and 0.7 per cent, respectively.