J Behav Med. 1987 Dec; 10(6): 555-8.
Nicotine dependence and secondary effects of smoking cessation.
UnitÃ© de Recherches en EpidÃ©miologie des Cancers, Institut National de la SantÃ© et de la Recherche MÃ©dicale U287, Institut Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France.
The secondary effects of smoking cessation among subjects included in a randomized trial, performed to test the efficacy of acupuncture and nicotine chewing gum vs. the control group, are reported according to nicotine dependence. After 1 month of cessation, ex-smokers had modified their nutritional intake, had gained weight, and felt more irritable compared to subjects still smoking. After 1 year, secondary effects concerned greater weight gain and irritability. The percentage of subjects who presented these secondary effects was more frequent among high-dependent than among low-dependent ex-smokers.