Urol Clin North Am. 1987 May; 14(2): 405-17.
Pain control for the urologist.
Pain states can be divided into three categories: acute, chronic not resulting from malignancy, and chronic malignant pain. A Pain Clinic can provide in-depth evaluation and treatment of difficult pain problems. A variety of oral and parenteral medications, ranging from nonsteroidal analgesics to narcotics, are available to control pain. Local anesthetics can be used for local infiltration, and peripheral and central nerve blocks can also be used as indications warrant.