The use of music and relaxation techniques to reduce pain of burn patients during daily debridement
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to ascertain the effect of music, paired with relaxation techniques, on the reduction of perceive pain, heart rate, behavioral characteristics of pain, and the Burn Technician's evaluation of patients' discomfort during daily debridement of burn patients. Five subjects were used, ranging in age from 13 to 96 years. There were one male and four females. Subjects were introduced to two experimental conditions: Music/Progressive Muscle Relaxation (MPMR), and no music control (NMC). Each subject served as his own control. The subjects received the MPMR every other treatment period for 14 days. The number of treatments ranged from 9 - 14 times. During the MPMR condition, the subject was led through the Progressive Muscle Relaxation, twenty minutes before debridement. Once debridement began, the music was started. The patient was instructed to concentrate on his breathing letting the music help keep it steady. The patients' heart rate was taken before and after debridement. Results of the Wilcoxon Matched Pair Signed Rank Test of Differences showed that without music, heart rates increased significantly after debridement, and that with music, heart rates stayed the same as before (alpha = .01). A Chi Square Test was computed for observe pain versus no pain intervals. Results showed that there was a significant difference between pain and no pain, with levels of pain decreasing and levels of no pain increasing in conditions with music (alpha = .01). There was no significant different in the intensity of pain as computed by a Chi Square Test (alpha = .05). Chi Square Test was computed for the Burn Technician's evaluation of patient pain level and the patients self-reports. There were no significant differences in the perception of pain in conditions with MPMR and no music (alpha = .05). Music therapy could be a valuble contribution to burn centers. Further research in areas is needed to verify the results found in this study and to examine other possible areas of service that music therapy might have on a burn unit.
Keyword(s): music, relaxation-training, pain, burns, patients, heart-rate, debridement, burn-patients.