The effects of modeling, reinforcement, and tempo on imitative rhythmic responses of moderately retarded adolescents
Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1987; 24: 160-169.
Abstract: Examined competencies necessary for adequate functioning as an entry-level music therapy practitioner. In Phase 1, 150 competency statements were rated on an 8-point necessity scale by 641 registered music therapists (RMTs). In Phase 2, 100 items were rated by 100 RMTs and certified music therapists. Selected findings show a preference for an eclectic approach to treatment, the psychiatric hospital as the most used setting, and the developmentally disabled as the largest client group. ABSTRACT 2: This study examined the effects of three modeling conditions, a high rate of positive reinforcement, and slow and fast tempos of recorded music on the motor movements of 8 moderately retarded adolescents. The three modeling treatments included: (a) simultaneous modeling, (b) modeling prior to imitation, and (c) no modeling or contact control. The dependent variables were steady beat motions while dancing and steady beat pulses performed on a rhythm band instrument, as well as verbal/visual identification of slow and fast tempos. Data were collected and tabulated from videotaped recordings by two independent judges. No significant findings resulted from the modeling conditions as imitated in dance movements; however, percussion performance showed marked improvement when simultaneous modeling was compared to a condition without modeling.A mean rate of 74% instructor approvals motivated individual interest in dancing and group support of peers. No significant differences were found between verbal and visual identification of tempos, but subjects seemed slightly better in labeling slow tempos.
Note: perceptions of necessary competencies for entry level music therapists; registered music therapists
Keyword(s): Professional standards; music therapy; therapist characteristics; therapist attitudes; adulthood