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October 2021

The effects of sequenced versus simultaneous EMG Biofeedback and sedative music on frontalis relaxation training

Author(s): Borling, J. E.

Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1986; 23: Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. National Association for Music Therapy 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 930 20910 Silver Spring, Maryland USA. 157-165.

Abstract: The purpose of the present study was to determine if sequenced administration of music and biofeedback would produce a more efficient relaxation response and training procedure than previous procedures using simultaneous presentation of biofeedback and music. Three combinations of precategorized sedative music and electromyographic (EMG) biofeedback assisted relaxation training of the frontalis muscle were examined. The first condition (Group A, n=10) examined the effect of EMG biofeedback using auditory mode with simultaneous presentation of music. The second condition (Group B, n=10) examined the effects of the music followed by the EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training. The third condition (Group C, n=10) examined the effect of EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training followed by music. Results showed mean percentage microvolt decreases of 18.1% for Group A, 43% for Group B, and 33% for Group C. The investigators discuss subjective reports of the participants, consistencies with established theory in brain research and relaxation response training techniques, and directions for future study.

Keyword(s): biofeedback, music, sedative, electromyography, relaxation-training.

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