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Am J Clin Nutr. 1984 Aug; 40(2): 325-38.

Nutrient intake and health status of lactovegetarians: chemical analyses of diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique.

Abdulla M, Aly KO, Andersson I, Asp NG, Birkhed D, Denker I, Johansson CG, Jägerstad M, Kolar K, Nair BM.

Six middle-aged lactovegetarians (three men and three women) collected copies of four 24-h diets using the duplicate portion sampling technique. By chemical analyses, the nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet was determined in detail and compared with that of a mixed Swedish diet (normal) and a vegan diet (vegan) studied previously. The nutrient composition of the lactovegetarian diet expressed per 1000 kcal represented an average between normal and vegan diets. It was in closer agreement with Swedish recommended dietary allowances than the normal Swedish diet. Thus, the lactovegetarian diet contained 35% of the energy as fat and was rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially linoleic acid, which resulted in a polyunsaturated/saturated fat ratio of 0.6. The lactovegetarian diet had a cholesterol concentration only half of that of a normal diet. Protein content and amino acid composition were well above recommendations. The lactovegetarian diets contained less sucrose than normal and vegan diets, but the sum of the intake of low molecular weight carbohydrates was comparable to normal and vegan diets. Dietary fiber was three times higher than in a normal diet. Essential minerals and trace elements, ie, Ca, Mg, Na, K, Fe, Zn, Cu, Se, satisfied current requirements. The intake of vitamin B12 by the lactovegetarians was around 1.4 micrograms daily, which is below the recommendations. The intake of folates was high, 300 to 400 micrograms daily. The clinical and biochemical investigation of the subjects revealed no signs of nutritional deficiency. Their plasma lipoproteins and the blood pressures were low for their age, in agreement with observations made earlier in a group of vegans.


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