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October 2021

Brainwaves and biofeedback: A brief history. Implications for music research

Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1975; 12: 46-58.

Abstract: Briefly describes the human brain, its functions, and the nature of the EEG. A short history of EEG technology and biofeedback is presented. Psychophysiological studies are described, and the biofeedback movement and its related literature are discussed. Areas of particular interest are the use of EEG to study the exceptional child, and "EEG and attention," both in general and as the attention relates to music. Since music as a stimulus is so important to the music therapist, the available research on aural stimuli, as measured by EEG techniques, is reviewed. Very few such research studies have been carrried out, however, and specific questions demanding answers are mentioned. (20 ref) ABSTRACT 2: Within the last three years, the quantity of brainwave and biofeedback research reports has increased to the point where it is difficult to discern what trends may be important. For the music therapists interested in knowing about the EEG and its relationship to music listening behavior, a brief introduction and overview to brainwave research is presented. This article briefly describes the human brain, its functions, and the nature of electroencephalogram (EG). The history of EEG technology and the linearity of research findings is related in a brief historical survey. Psychophysiological study is described and is utilized as an introduction to the biofeedback movement and its related literature. Though various areas of biofeedback study are delineated, the "EEG and Attention" is focused upon as the area of most portential interest to the therapist and educator. Since music as a stimulus is so important to the music therapist, the available research related to attentions to music stimuli, as measure by EEG techniques, is reviewed. Questions are raised as to the best course of action for future research.

Note: EEG & biofeedback; implications for music research & therapy

Keyword(s): Music therapy; electroencephalography ; biofeedback


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