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October 2021

The use of contingent music in teaching social skills to a nonverbal, hyperactive boy

Author(s): Hill, B. K., Rawers, R. J., Ritalin.

Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1975; 12: Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. National Association for Music Therapy 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 930 20910 Silver Spring, Maryland USA. 2-18..

Abstract: Three experiments investigated the contingent use of music in teaching social skills to a nonverbal, hyperactive boy. Experiment I employed a multiple baseline design in researching effects of contingent music on appropriate walking. Increases of 20 to 40% of appropriate walking accompanied the successive use of contingent music. Generalization of an approximate 30% increase was also observed in settings without music. Follow-up observations in normal settings (which the child had been previously isolated from) indi- cated considerably improved walking. Experiment II employed a reversal design in investigating effects of contingent music on appropriate car-riding. Increases in acceptable car-riding of 15-20% repetitively accompanied the contingent use of music. In addition, condition music combined with Ritalin medication appeared more effective than Ritalin alone in reducing hyperacive behavior. Experiment III demonstrated the utility of a novel remote-control device for rapidly presenting contingent music.

Keyword(s): contingent-music, social-behavior, nonverbal, hyperactivity, child, behavior-modification, behavior-change.


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