A comparison of music as reinforcement for correct mathematical responses versus music as reinforcement for attentiveness
Journal/Book: Journal of Music Therapy. 1975; Silver Spring, Maryland, USA. National Association for Music Therapy 8455 Colesville Rd., Suite 930 20910 Silver Spring, Maryland USA. journal article.
Abstract: Subjects were 75 fifth-grade students from a normal school setting who were randomly assigned to one of the following three groups: (1) attention, (2) math, and (3) contact control. Subjects in the attention group were reinforced with music listening for on-task behavior; subjects in the math group were reinforced with music listening for number of correct math problems; subjects in the contact control group were told to remain in their seats and work quietly after the experimental math period ended. Results indicated that contingent music listening was effective in increasing both (1) correct math responses, and (2) attentive behaviors. However, only the math froup showed significant improvement in number of correct math responses on the posttest.
Keyword(s): music, reinforcement, mathematics, responses, attentiveness, elementary, normal-subjects, contingent, contingent-music, music-listening.